A) Section 11 (1) (a) to (o) of The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 prescribes and enumerates the forms of cruelty mentioned hereunder:
Sect 11(1)(a) Beating, Kicking, Over-riding, Over-driving, Over-loading, Torturing, Causing unnecessary pain or suffering to any animals;
(b) Employing any animal which, by reason of its age or any disease, unfit to be so employed, and still making it work or labour or for any purpose;
(c) Wilfully and unreasonably administering any injurious drug or injurious substance;
(d) Conveying or carrying, either in or upon any vehicle in such a manner as to subject it to unnecessary pain or suffering;
(e) Keeping or confining any animal in any cage or any receptacle, which does not measure sufficiently in height, length and breadth to permit the animal a reasonable opportunity for movement;
(f) Keeping for an unreasonable time any animal chained or tethered upon an unreasonably heavy chain or chord;
(g) Being the owner, neglects to exercise or cause to be exercised reasonably any dog habitually chained up or kept in close confinement;
(h) Being the owner of any animal fails to provide such animal with sufficient food, drink or shelter;
(i) Being the owner, without reasonable cause, abandons any animal in circumstances, which render it likely that it will suffer pain by reason of starvation or thirst;
(j) Wilfully permits any animal, of which he is the owner to go at large in any street while the animal is affected with a contagious or infectious disease, or without reasonable excuse permits any diseased or disabled animal, of which he is the owner, to die in any street;
(k) Offers for sale or without reasonable cause, has in his possession any animal which is suffering pain by reason of mutilation, starvation, thirst, overcrowding, or other ill- treatment
(l) Mutilates any animal or kills any animal (including stray dogs) by using the method of strychnine injections in the heart or in any other unnecessarily cruel manner;
(m) Solely with a view to providing entertainment -
(n)Organizes, keeps, uses, or acts in the management of any place for animal fighting or for the purpose of baiting any animal or permits or offers any place to be so used or receives money for the admission of any other person to any place kept or used for any such purposes;
(o) Promotes or takes part in any shooting match or competition wherein animals are released from captivity for the purpose of such shooting.
A) Yes. If any animal is subjected to any form of cruelty specified treated in any cruel way, in any of the ways provided under Section11 (a) to (o) of The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, the offender (in the case of a first offence) will have to pay fine which shall extend to fifty rupees and if it is the case of second offence or subsequent offence committed within three years of the previous offence, he will be fined with not less than twenty-five rupees but which may extend to one hundred rupees or with the imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with both. Also, in the case of second offence, the offender’s vehicle is confiscated, and he will never be allowed to keep an animal again.
A) Section 2 (c) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 defines “Cognizable Offence”. The cognizable offences means that such of the offences wherein Police Officer is empowered to arrest the accused/ offender without warrant. All cognizable offences comes under the specified offences under the Indian Penal Code such as Murder, Robbery, Theft, Rioting, Counterfeiting etc.
B) Section 2 (l) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 defines “Non-Cognizable Offences”. The non-cognizable offences are such offences where the Police Officer is not empowered to arrest the accused/offender without warrant. In the commission of any Non-Cognizable Offences, the Police Officer should obtain a warrant from the Magistrate concerned to arrest the accused/offender. The cases of Public nuisance, Mischief, Assault, Causing Simple Hurt, are some of the offences which are Non-Cognizable Offences.
A) The following tabulation/chart enumerates the forms of offenses – Cognizable and Non-Cognizable under the PCA Act, 1960:
Beating, Kicking, Overriding, Over-driving, Overloading, Torturing, Causing unnecessary pain or suffering to any animals;
Employing any animal which, by reason of its age or any disease, unfit to be so employed, and still making it work or labour or for any purpose
Wilfully and unreasonably administering any injurious drug or injurious substance;
Conveying or carrying, either in or upon any vehicle in such a manner as to subject it to unnecessary pain or suffering;
Keeping or confining any animal in any cage or any receptacle which does not measure sufficiently in height, length, and breadth to permit the animal a reasonable opportunity for movement;
Being the owner neglects to exercise or cause to be exercised reasonably any dog habitually chained up or kept in close confinement
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